Menu

Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution by Waste Tyre Derived Activated Carbon

Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution by Waste Tyre Derived Activated Carbon
C. G. Joseph, J. Janaun and M. Massuanna

View Abstract and References
ABSTRACT

Waste rubber tyres were used to prepare activated carbon via destructive distillation method employing a two stage process i.e. carbonization and chemical activation in a tubular furnace. Carbonization was done at 500°C for 1 h followed by impregnation of char with NaOH. Activation was done in a horizontal tube furnace via CO2 activation. Two variables and three parameters i.e. impregnation ratio between NaOH and char (1:1 and 3:1), activation temperature (700°C and 900°C), and activation time (60 min and 180 min) were studied and its effects on percentage yield, and malachite green (MG) dye removal were compared and presented in this paper. IR spectra of all samples a  number of bands at 1710, 1620, and 1054 cm–1 –1026 cm–1 which proved the presence of carboxylic, carbonyl, and some acids, alcohols, ether and ester groups on the surface of carbon prepared. Activated carbon, AC6, which was prepared at ratio 3:1 and heated at 900°C for 60 min preparation was selected due to high surface area (313.17 m2/g) and removed about 97.43% of MG dye after 60 min. AC6 was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm indicating multilayer adsorption while the adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The maximum monolayer adsorption was 128.21 mg/g.

Key words: Activated carbon; adsorption; malachite green; waste tyre; impregnation ratio

REFERENCES

Dahri, M.K., Kooh, M.R.R. and Lim, L.B.L. (2014) Water remediation using low cost adsorbent walnut shell for removal of malachite green: Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamic and regeneration studies, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2, 1434–1444.

Tian, Y., Liu, P., Wang, X. and Lin, H. (2011) Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto ordered mesoporous carbons, Chem. Eng. J., 171, 1263–1269.

Hamad, B.K., Noor, A.M., Afida, A.R. and Mohd Asri, M.N. (2010) High removal of 4-chloroguaiacol by high surface area of oil palm shell-activated carbon activated with NaOH from aqueous solution, Desalination, 257, 1–7.

Williams, P.T. (2013) Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review, Waste Manag., 33, 1714–1728.

Mui, E.L.K., Ko, D.C.K. and McKay, G. (2004) Production of active carbons from waste tyres––a review, Carbon, 42, 2789–2805.

Hofman, M. and Pietrzak, R. (2011) Adsorbents obtained from waste tires for NO2 removal under dry conditions at room temperature. Chem. Eng. J., 170, 202–208.

Martínez, J.D., Puy, N., Murillo, R., García, T., Navarro, M.V. and Mastral, A.M. (2013) Waste tyre pyrolysis — A review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 23, 179–213.

Joseph, C.G., Hoon, G.G., Sharain-Liew, Y.L., Krishnaiah, D. and Massuanna, M. (2013) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon derived from waste rubber tire via chemical activation with ZnCl2: Surface area and morphological studies, in Developments in Sustainable Chemical and Bioprocess Technology, eds. R. Pogaku, A. Bono and C. Chu, Springer US.

Gupta, V.K., Nayak, A., Agarwal, S. and Tyagi, I. (2014) Potential of activated carbon from waste rubber tire for the adsorption of phenolics: Effect of pre-treatment conditions, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 417, 420–430.

Hamadi, N.K., Chen, X.D., Farid, M.M. and Lu, M.G.Q. (2001) Adsorption kinetics for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution by adsorbents derived from used tyres and sawdust, Chem. Eng. J., 84, 95–105.

Nakagawa, K., Namba, A., Mukai, S.R., Tamon, H., Ariyadejwanich, P. and Tanthapanichakoon, W. (2004) Adsorption of phenol and reactive dye from aqueous solution on activated carbons derived from solid wastes, Water Res., 38, 1791–1798.

Lian, F., Xing, B. and Zhu, L. (2011) Comparative study on composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons derived from different synthetic waste polymers, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 360, 725–730.

Teng, H., Lin, Y.-C. and Hsu, L.-Y. (2000) Production of Activated Carbons from Pyrolysis of Waste Tires Impregnated with Potassium Hydroxide, J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., 50, 1940–1946.

Gupta, V.K., Nayak, A. and Agarwal, S. (2012) Performance evaluation and application of oxygen enriched waste rubber tire adsorbent for the removal of hazardous aniline derivatives from waste water, Chem. Eng. J., 203, 447–457.

Pietrzak, R., Nowicki, P., Kaźmierczak, J., Kuszyńska, I., Goscianska, J. and Przepiórski, J. (2014) Comparison of the effects of different chemical activation methods on properties of carbonaceous adsorbents obtained from cherry stones, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 92, 1187–1191.

Muniandy, L., Adam, F., Mohamed, A.R. and Ng, E.-P. (2014) The synthesis and characterization of high purity mixed microporous/mesoporous activated carbon from rice husk using chemical activation with NaOH and KOH, Microporous Mesoporous Mater, 197, 316–323.

Hsu, S.-H., Huang, C.-S., Chung, T.-W. and Gao, S. (2014) Adsorption of chlorinated volatile organic compounds using activated carbon made from Jatropha curcas seeds, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 45, 2526–2530.

Wu, M., Guo, Q. and Fu, G. (2013) Preparation and characteristics of medicinal activated carbon powders by CO2 activation of peanut shells, Powder Technol., 247, 188–196.

Cazetta, A.L., Vargas, A.M.M., Nogami, E.M., Kunita, M.H., Guilherme, M.R., Martins, A.C., Silva, T.L., Moraes, J.C.G. and Almeida, V.C. (2011) NaOH-activated carbon of high surface area produced from coconut shell: Kinetics and equilibrium studies from the methylene blue adsorption, Chem. Eng. J., 174, 117–125.

SIRIM (1984) Specification of Powder AC MS873, Standardization and Industrial Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Hameed, B.H. and El-Khaiary, M.I. (2008) Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism of malachite green adsorption on activated carbon prepared from bamboo by K2CO3 activation and subsequent gasification with CO2, J. Hazard. Mater., 157, 344–351.

Anisuzzaman, S.M., Joseph, C.G., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Krishnaiah, D. and Tay, V.V. (2013) Modification of commercial activated carbon for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol from simulated wastewater, J. King Saud Univ. - Sci., 25 (3), 251–255

Chan, O.S., Cheung, W.H. and McKay, G. (2011) Preparation and characterisation of demineralised tyre derived activated carbon, Carbon, 49, 4674–4687.

Foo, K.Y. and Hameed, B.H. (2012) Textural porosity, surface chemistry and adsorptive properties of durian shell derived activated carbon prepared by microwave assisted NaOH activation, Chem. Eng. J., 187, 53–62.

Fernández, A.M., Barriocanal, C. and Alvarez, R. (2012) Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres, J. Hazard. Mater., 203–204, 236–243.

Foo, K.Y. and Hameed, B.H. (2011) Microwave assisted preparation of activated carbon from pomelo skin for the removal of anionic and cationic dyes, Chem. Eng. J., 173, 385–390.

Saleh, T.A., Gupta, V.K. and Al-Saadi, A.A. (2013) Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution using porous carbon derived from rubber tires: Experimental and computational study, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 396, 264–269.

Tongpoothorn, W., Sriuttha, M., Homchan, P., Chanthai, S. and Ruangviriyachai, C. (2011) Preparation of activated carbon derived from Jatropha curcas fruit shell by simple thermo-chemical activation and characterization of their physico-chemical properties, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 89, 335–340.

Undri, A., Meini, S., Rosi, L., Frediani, M. and Frediani, P. (2013) Microwave pyrolysis of polymeric materials: Waste tires treatment and characterization of the value-added products, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 103, 149–158.

Ghaedi, M., Shojaeipour, E., Ghaedi, A.M. and Sahraei, R. (2015) Isotherm and kinetics study of malachite green adsorption onto copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: Artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization, Spectrochim. Acta. A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 142, 135–149.

Foo, K.Y. and Hameed, B.H. (2012) Potential of jackfruit peel as precursor for activated carbon prepared by microwave induced NaOH activation, Bioresour. Technol., 112, 143–150.

Ahmad, M.A., Ahmad, N. and Bello, O.S. (2014) Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye using durian seed-based activated carbon, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 225, 2057–2074.

View Full Article
back to top