Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, 2017, Vol. 19(1), 24–32
Improved Photocatalytic Performance of ZnO through AgCu Bimetal Coupling for the Photodegradation of Nitrobenzene
Hauwa Sidi Aliyu1, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,2* and Zulkifly Abbas3
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Received: September 2016; Accepted: May 2017
A ZnO semiconductor with bimetals (Ag and Cu) coupled in the matrix was successfully prepared using a microwave irradiation technique under a very low synthetic temperature and power of 120ºC and 240 W, respectively. The phase, structural, morphological, and elemental compositions of the synthesized AgCu-ZnO photocatalyst were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersed X-ray and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The band gap energy of the photocatalyst was estimated from the absorption data obtained in UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. The photodegradation efficiency of the AgCu-ZnO photocatalyst immobilised on a glass plate was evaluated using nitrobenzene (NB) as the model organic pollutant. The immobilized AgCu/ZnO photocatalyst effectively degraded 99% of 20 ppm NB at an optimum catalyst loading of 0.75 g after 2 h of visible light irradiation.
Key words: Photodegradation; AgCu/ZnO photocatalyst; immobilization; nitrobenzene
Whang, T-J., Hsieh, M-T. and Chen H-H. (2012) Visible-light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with laser-induced Ag/ZnO nanoparticles, Applied Surface Science, 258, 2796–2801
Curri, M., Comparelli, R., Cozzoli, P., Mascolo, G. and Agostiano, A. (2003) Colloidal oxide nanoparticles for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes, Journal of Material Science and Engineering, C 23, 285–289
Sidi, H.A., Abdullah, A.H. and Abbas, Z. (2015) Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of microwave synthesized Cu/ZnO photocatalyst, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 2(3), 612–615
Dai, Y., Zheng, D. and Zhang, K. (2016) Nitrobenzene adsorption capacity of NaOH modified spent coffee ground from aqueous solution, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 68, 232–238.
Parsham, H. and Saeed, S. (2013) Simultaneous removal of nitrobenzene, 1,3 dinitrobenzene and 2,4 dichloronitrobenzene from water sample using anthracite as a potential adsorbent. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 1, 1117–1123.
Zhang, Y, Zhang, K., Dai, C. and Zhou, X. (2014) Performance and mechanism of pyrite for nitrobenzene removal in aqueous solution, Chemical Engineering Science, 111, 135–141.
Wei, W., Sun, R., Jin, Z., Cui, J. and Wei, Z. (2014) Hydroxyapatite-gelatin nanocomposite as novel adsorbent for nitrobenzene removal from aqueous solution, Applied Surface Science, 292, 1020–1029.
Dong, Q. and Xu, Y, (2016) Enhanced nitrobenzene adsorption on aqueous solution by surface silylated MCM 41, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 232, 143–150.
Cui, Y., Liu, X-Y., Chung, T.S., Weber, M., Staudt, C. and Maletzko, C. (2016) Removal of micropollutant (phenol, aniline and nitrobenzene) via forward osmosis (FO) process: evaluation of FO as alternative method to reverse osmosis (RO), Water Research, 71, 104–114.
Duan H, Liu, Y., Yin, X., Bai, J. and Qi J. (2016) Degradation of nitrobenzene by fenton-like reaction in a H2O2/schwertmannite system, Chemical Engineering Journal, 283, 873–879.
Sun, L., Song, H., Li, Q. and Li, A. (2016) Fe/Cu bimetallic catalysts for reductive degradation of nitrobenzene under oxic condition, Chemical Engineering Journal, 283, 366–374.
Nitoi, I., Oancea, P., Raileanu, M., Crisan, M., Constantin, L. and Cristea, I. (2015) UV-Vis photocatalytic degradation of nitrobenzene from waster using heavy metal doped titania, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 21, 677–682.
Kumar, A., Kumar, P., Paul, S. and Jain, S.L. (2016) Visible light assisted reduction of nitrobenzene using Fe(Bpy)3+2/rGO nanocomposite as photocatalyst, Applied Surface Science, 386, 103–114.
Liman, M.G., Abdullah, A.H., Hussein, M.Z. and Zainal, Z. (2014) Photodegradation of nitrobenzene using cobalt modified zinc oxide particle, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 26, S287–S290.
Konstantinuou, I. and Albanis, T. A. (2004) TiO2-assisted photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solution: kinetic and mechanistic investigations, Journal of Applied Catalysis on the Environmental, B49, 1–14
Gaya, U. and Abdullah, A. (2008) Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants over titanium dioxide: A review of fundamentals, progress and problems, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, 9, 1–12.
Pannee, A., Chradda, B. and Wichien, S. (2012) Photocatalytic activity under solar irradiation of silver and copper doped zinc oxide: photodeposition versus liquid impregnation methods, Journal of Applied Sciences, 12, 1809–1816.
Pardeshi, S. K. and Patil, A. (2008) A simple route for photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous zinc oxide suspension using solar energy, Journal of Solar Energy, 82, 700–705.
Khezrianjoo, S. and Revanasiddappa, H.D. (2012) Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression for the photocatalytic degradation of metanil yellow aqueous solution by ZnO catalyst. Chemical Sciences Journal, 3, 1–8.